[GRG] scientists reroute commands from brain to legs bypassing the spine

http://ift.tt/VlPtAS
There is a video of action at the link above.

Contact: Yukio Nishimura
yukio@nips.ac.jp
National Institutes of Natural Sciences

Bypass commands from the brain to legs through a computer

Potential rehabilitation of volitional walking in individuals with
spinal cord injury

VIDEO: The right arm muscles and the locomotion center of the man
are artificially connected through a computer. His legs are in a
relaxed state. When he moves his right hand,…

Click here for more information.

Gait disturbance in individuals with spinal cord injury is
attributed to the interruption of neural pathways from brain to the
spinal locomotor center, whereas neural circuits locate below and
above the lesion maintain most of their functions. An artificial
connection that bridges the lost pathway and connects brain to
spinal circuits has potential to ameliorate the functional loss. A
Japanese research group led by Shusaku Sasada, research fellow and
Yukio Nishimura, associate professor of the National Institute for
Physiological Sciences (NIPS), National Institutes of Natural
Sciences (NINS) has successfully made an artificial connection from
the brain to the locomotion center in the spinal cord by bypassing
with a computer interface. This allowed subjects to stimulate the
spinal locomotion center using volitionally-controlled muscle
activity and to control walking in legs. This result was published
online in The Journal of Neuroscience on August 13, 2014.

IMAGE: When turning off the computer-aided spinal cord bypass, the
lower extremities which were in a relaxed state did not move even
if the subject was swinging his/her arms. With the…

Click here for more information.

Neural networks in the spinal cord, locomotion center are capable
of producing rhythmic movements, such as swimming and walking, even
when isolated from the brain. The brain controls spinal locomotion
center by sending command to the spinal locomotion center to start,
stop and change waking speed. In most cases of spinal cord injury,
the loss of this link from the brain to the locomotion center
causes problems with walking.

The research group came up with bypassing the functioning brain and
locomotion center with the computer to compensate lost pathways as
a way to enable individuals with spinal cord injury to regain
walking ability.

Since the arm movement associte with leg movement when we walk they
used muscle activity of arm to sarogate the brain activity. The
computer interface allowed subjects to control magnetic stimulator
that drive to the spinal locomotion center non-invassively using
volitionally-controlled muscle activity and to control walking in
legs. As a results of experiments in people who are neurologically
intact, the subjects were asked to make own legs relaxed and
passively controlled via computer interface that was controlled by
arm muscle, walking behavior in legs was induced and subjects could
control the step cycle volitionally as well. However without
bypassing with the computer interface, the legs did not move even
if the arms muscle was volitionally acivated.

IMAGE: This image shows an artificial connection that connects
brain to spinal circuits.

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About Johnny Adams

My full-time commitment is to slow and ultimately reverse age related functional decline to increase healthy years of life. I’ve been active in this area since the 1970s, steadily building skills and accomplishments. I have a good basic understanding of the science of aging, and have many skills that complement those of scientists so they can focus on science to advance our shared mission. Broad experience Top skills: administration, management, information technology (data and programming), communications, writing, marketing, market research and analysis, public speaking, forging ethical win-win outcomes among stakeholders (i.e. high level "selling"). Knowledge in grant writing, fundraising, finance. Like most skilled professionals, I’m best described as a guy who defines an end point, then figures out how to get there. I enjoy the conception, design, execution and successful completion of a grand plan. Executive Director Gerontology Research Group (GRG). Manages Email discussion forum, web site, meetings and oversees supercentenarian (oldest humans, 110+ years) research. CEO / Executive Director Carl I. Bourhenne Medical Research Foundation (Aging Intervention Foundation), an IRS approved 501(c)(3) nonprofit. http://www.AgingIntervention.org Early contributor to Supercentenarian Research Foundation. Co-Founder Geroscience Healthspan Forum. Active contributor to numerous initiatives to increase healthy years of life. Co-authored book on conventional, practical methods available today to slow the processes of aging – nutrition, exercise, behavior modification and motivation, stress reduction, proper supplementation, damage caused by improper programs, risk reduction and others. Fundamental understanding of, and experience in the genomics of longevity (internship analyzing and curating longevity gene papers). Biological and technical includes information technology, software development and computer programming, bioinformatics and protein informatics, online education, training programs, regulatory, clinical trials software, medical devices (CAT scanners and related), hospital electrical equipment testing program. Interpersonal skills – good communication, honest, well liked, works well in teams or alone. Real world experience collaborating in interdisciplinary teams in fast paced organizations. Uses technology to advance our shared mission. Education: MBA 1985 University of Southern California -- Deans List, Albert Quon Community Service Award (for volunteering with the American Longevity Association and helping an elderly lady every other week), George S. May Scholarship, CA State Fellowship. BA psychology, psychobiology emphasis 1983 California State University Fullerton Physiological courses as well as core courses (developmental, abnormal etc). UCLA Psychobiology 1978, one brief but fast moving and fulfilling quarter. Main interest was the electrochemical basis of consciousness. Also seminars at the NeuroPsychiatric Institute. Other: Ongoing conferences, meetings and continuing education. Aging, computer software and information technology. Some molecular biology, biotech, bio and protein informatics, computer aided drug design, clinical medical devices, electronics, HIPAA, fundraising through the Assoc. of Fundraising Professionals. Previous careers include: Marketing Increasing skill set and successes in virtually all phases, with valuable experience in locating people and companies with the greatest need and interest in a product or service, and sitting across the table with decision makers and working out agreements favorable to all. Information Technology: Management, data analysis and programming in commercial and clinical trials systems, and bioinformatics and protein informatics. As IT Director at Newport Beach, CA based technology organization Success Family of Continuing Education Companies, provided online software solutions for insurance and financial professionals in small to Fortune 500 size companies. We were successful with lean team organization (the slower moving competition was unable to create similar software systems). Medical devices: At Omnimedical in Paramount CA developed and managed quality assurance dept. and training depts. for engineers, physicians and technicians. Designed hospital equipment testing program for hospital services division. In my early 20’s I was a musician, and studied psychology and music. Interned with the intention of becoming a music therapist. These experiences helped develop valuable skills used today to advance our shared mission of creating aging solutions.
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