Additional Biomarkers of Aging for consideration:
–Pulmonary function (‘Pulmonary Age’)–via Spirometry
–Arterial Stiffness–via Sphygmocor
–Measure of cognitive function–‘CNS Vital Signs’ is one option
–Are there measures of Stem Cell health & functionality (e.g., total #s, regenerative capacity, mobilization, etc.) that can be used as a tangible Biomarker of Aging?
–Telomere Length: Maria Blasco’s Life Length lab measures (in PBMCs) not only median telomere length but also the % of ‘critically-short’ telomeres, which is actually the more important measure, as per Harley, Greider, et.al., it takes only one critically-short telomere to throw a cell into senescence.
–Immune measure: The UCLA Clinical Immunology Laboratory at the Geffen School of Medicine (Tony Butch/Najib Aziz) performs a “Flow T-cell subset Analysis” which measures the % of senescent CD8+/CD28- T-cells, which per Harley/Andrews/Blasco is considered a very important “biomarker of immune aging.”
The research of Rita B. Effros (UCLA) over many years demonstrates that CD28 T-cell senescence is a major factor in immunosenescence, which is of course critical to aging, and “inflammaging,” including the finding that senescent CD28- T-cells secrete and increase the circulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha (Effros 2011, 2013). Her research plus that of several others demonstrates that the % of CD28- T-cells contributes to a number of age-related degenerative diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (Weyand & Gorozny 2014), “early atherosclerotic damage in rheumatoid arthritis patients” (Gerli, et.al. 2004), and “increased cardiovascular risk in diabetes mellitus” (Giubilato, et.al. 2011), among others.
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David B. Cross
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